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The heat pump

The heat pump

The heat pump is a thermal machine that can transfer thermal energy from a source to a lower temperature to a higher temperature source, using different forms of energy, generally electrical.

The operation of the heat pumps is equal to the operation of a refrigerator. With the difference that the refrigerator cycle is inverted. The principle is simple: From a source of natural heat (geothermal, water, air) heat is absorbed to use it for heating. A heat pump heating system consists of three elements: energy-source plant, heat pump, distribution plant and accumulator.

Principle of operating a heat pump:

1: A thermal fluid transports thermal energy

The thermal fluid circulates inside a closed circuit and has the task of carrying and transmitting thermal energy.

You wonder where does the energy gain so typical of heat pumps come from? – The answer is simple: from the evaporator!

2: The thermal fluid evaporates in the evaporator

The name of the evaporator derives from the fact that the liquid coolant fluid boils, in other words evaporates inside it at very low temperatures and in the meantime absorbs energy from the environment.

The coolant fluid is thus in a gaseous state.

3: Under pressure the gas will heat up

At this point the coolant is compressed into the compressor and decreases its volume. During this process the pressure increases and consequently the temperature of the coolant fluid. The coolant fluid circulates to the condenser.

This is an exchanger in which the energy absorbed by the environment is transmitted to the heating system.

4: The coolant cools down and absorbs heat again

In the cooling process, the heat transfer fluid flows to the liquid state. The expansion valve decreases the pressure and

the fluid absorbs heat energy from the environment again.

The cycle then starts again.


The first advantage is undoubtedly the energy efficiency, which as mentioned is high. This makes the geothermal heat pump cost-effective even in the face of greater gas cost than electricity. The economic benefits of the heat pump are bigger than the more expensive and the more energy-efficient the plants to be replaced (those with fossil fuels such as diesel and LPG for example).

A well-designed and installed geothermal system in the right conditions saves billing for about 40% of total energy consumption expenditure (if the plant is equipped with a separate counter). The combination of the heat pump to a radiant heating and cooling system guarantees energy savings of 40% to 70% compared to traditional systems. From the environmental point of view, however, the heat pump with heating function increases the use of renewable energy and thereby reduces climatic emissions.

A heat pump user is guaranteed at least the comfort of classical combustion systems, as well as unprecedented economic and energy savings and a more modern and eco-friendly home.


Those who build apartments or houses should consider the fact that a heat pump, consuming less energy than a traditional system, automatically improves the energy class of buildings, paving the way for a property revaluation and privileged access to local incentives Or national targets in an ecologically viable zero impact.


Finally, heat pump installers can finally create a unique heating, cooling and hot water plant for healthcare, thus providing greater comfort and lower operating costs.

Moreover, the goal of the European community is to be taken into account: by 2020, by 2020, reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions by replacing them with completely renewable and clean energy.

In this sense, heat pumps will definitely be able to contribute, as renewable heat sources, with 60% energy efficiency compared to conventional combustion systems and no CO2 emissions at the site where they are installed.

Whenever possible, it is always advisable to install a heat pump system to replace traditional heating; This way, it is possible to eliminate combustion and achieve a higher safety standard when gas line connections or gas storage facilities are not needed, such as LPG or diesel fuel, but a simple electrical connection.

A heat pump is ultimately easy to install and is therefore an ideal solution also during the renovation of houses or flats; In these cases, problems related to the availability of space or other structural constraints (especially evident in historical centers) can be more easily resolved.

Summarizing, the two main advantages associated with heat pump heating systems are:


A heat pump is a really flexible heating system that can be tailored to individual needs each time.


A heat pump is characterized by a high energy yield; Thanks to it it is able to present lower operating costs than conventional heating systems (such as autonomous systems, electric stoves, gas stoves, pellet stoves, etc.); In addition, a heat pump can be conveniently installed in either new-built homes or in existing or refurbished dwellings.

If we want to go further, a clear indicator of the convenience of a heat pump compared to a classic system is the so-called Time Backed Time (TBA), ie the time needed to match the savings (resulting from the resulting low running costs of a pump Heat) and the initial surplus.

Vincenzo Di Leo

One thought on “The heat pump

Click To See MorePosted on  10:40 pm - May 2, 2019

Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article. I will make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly return.


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