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Category ArchiveBio-building, Safety and Domotics

Domotics

Let’s learn the “risk”

 

Earthquake figures from the 20th century tell us that there were more than 150,000 victims in Italy, the damage amounted to 120 billion euros, and to return to normality we spent 2.4 billion euros per year.

A DEFINITION OF THE RISK

A risk si the sum of the danger union, that si, the likelihood of a catastrophic event, the vulnerability, that si, the propensity to damage, and of the explained value or of the assessment of damange.

To reduce the risk, therefore, it is necessary to reduce vulnerability by investing in prevention.

The stability of buildings depends on a number of factors:

  • STIFFNESS, that is the constant relationship between the applied force and the variation length of the material. It is expressed by a constant flexible k which varies according to the material.
  • VISCOSITY AND DUETILITY, the property of some materials that can be easily reduced to very subtle wires due to traction forces.
  • RESOLUTION, when the wavelength of the earthquake approaches the oscillation of the building

For this reason man has devised a series of building techniques that enable to deal with earthquakes easily as the reinforced concrete to deal with easily.

The reinforced concrete is made of highly compression resistent centre and highly deformation resistant iron bars, but in case of unsuitable ground resonance they also risk the collapse.

Another system is the X-reinforcement or X-frame structure, very used in Chile where the bearing structures are made of steel and high-energy earthquakes are frequent.

Finally, there are the seismic insulators, which we saw during the meeting with the Engineer Restaino and we saw them set running in the ASTOR shipyard. At present they are the best systems that enable to deal with the resonance problem that not always the reinforced concrete can handle.

Two types of insulators, elastomeric ones and sliding ones, are fitted In the buildings built by the ASTOR, named Giotto.

The first, made of natural rubber or synthetic rubber, is made up of an alternation of layers of steel and elastomer sheets, made solid by hot vulcanization processes.

The second, waden of teflon-steel, runs on flat frictional surfaces with or without lubrication; these insulators need an elasticated recoiling system after the earthquake and can be associated with flexible elastomeric insulators that perform this function.

Investing with these innovative devices in seismic areas is essential even if the costs are very high, but life is priceless!

SAFETY AT WORK

Security at work for the Italian law is the set of preventive measures to be taken continuously to make safe and healthy workplaces, in order to prevent or reduce the exposure of workers to the risks involved. These measures are intended to improve working conditions, reduce the possibility of injury to workers, independent contractors (eg. Subcontractors) and to those who are, even occasionally, inside the workplace. Measures of hygiene and health protection should be taken to protect workers from potential health damage such as accidents and dangerous diseases, as well as the general population and the environment. From a legal point of view, the term refers to the activity of prescription of prevention and protection measures (technical, organizational and procedural), to be taken by the employer, his associates (managers and officers) and workers themselves. In order to simplify the complex legislation, the Italian legislature has structured essentially three main axes on which the legislation on the safety in the places and at the workplace moves:

  1. General measures of protection
  2. Risk assessment
  3. Health surveillance
  4. RSPP and RLS.

 

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READ SAFETY AT WORK

 

 

IN ITALY…

The Italian Legislation in the field of reference to the aspects concerning the prevention on the workplace is the Legislative Decree 81/08, and in particular the Articles 31-35 illustrating the structure of an Effective Prevention and Protection System, defining skills, requirements and purposes and detailing the guidelines.

 

…AND IN EUROPE

The European Legislation in the field of reference to the aspects on concerning the prevention on the workplace is the EC Directive 89/391, in particular the Article 13 in which the general framework for the prevention management on the workplace is provided, with specific reference to the obligations of workers.

WHAT CAN WE DO TO MAKE A WORKPLACE SAFE?

Workshops contain a wide range of handtools and it is essential that only the correct tools are employed for a particular job. Electrical equipment should be designed and constructed in order to prevent the danger from shock and fire and they should be always be kept in safe and good conditions. All electrical power distribution circuits should be protected by differential protections; any gas supply must be automatically interrupted when some failures of the system take place. Safety spectacles or goggles must be worn whenever flyng chips, swarfs, and coolant splashes might endanger the eyes. Moreover, workplace health and safety alsoregarde lighting, the arrangement of forniture in the building, and the location of tools. Obviously, some jobs are more dangerous than others, so lots of organisations esignate a special team which will monitor safety on a regular basis in order to minimise the risks of accidents. Generally speaking, larger organisations have got better resources as far as safety is concerned; in so many smaller workplace, on the only contrary, the only expert is the person designated as the health and safety officer. In any case,every organisation needs to constantly review it’s safety standards.

 

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RSPP AND RLS

 

A special role among the entities responsible for safety at work is attributed to the Head of the Prevention and Protection Service (RSPP), how is appointed by the employer and participates with the company doctor and the Workers’ Safety Representative to the periodical meeting called annually by the employer. The figure of the RSPP can be internal or external to the company, and in some cases, the employer himself may fill this role. The key interlocutor of the RSPP and the employer on the safety issues in the workplace is the Workers’ Safety Representative (RLS) how, in the companies employing up to 15 employees is directly elected by the workers within them, while, in companies with more than 15 workers, he is elected within the present union representatives. The RLS has the right to be consulted in advance by the employer, with regard to risk assessment, the identification, the planning, the implementation and the verification of prevention.
The employer can be held responsible for injury or murder if he does not adapt to the standards of worker protection tools. In fact, the Article. C.P. 590, “Personal Injuries Negligent”, focuses on serious injuries and, in the fifth paragraph, sets out the requirements for the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases, as well as the ones concerning the field of hygiene. The Article. 589 C.P., in particular, regards the manslaughter as a result of the violation of regulations about the prevention of accidents at work: in case of death it provides from to 2 to 7 years of imprisonment.

ScamBioLoGiCo

ScamBioLoGiCo is the first Green Station of Italy, the result of the agreement signed among Legambiente, the Italian State Railways and the Italian Railway Network for the re-functioning project of the Upper Station of Potenza.

The structure houses recycling workshops, exhibition spaces for the sale of organic products at zero kilometre, which are loose, unpackaged and of Fair Trade; spaces dedicated to the barter of goods in right condition but it is also a place of meeting, training, research and development for the diffusion of environmental culture and the sharing of the knowledge.

The project –  made possible thanks to the support of the Foundation with the South within the Project Center for sustainability – allowed the recovering and redeveloping of the property of the Upper Station of Santa Maria, dating back to the last years of the ‘800. The purpose was to preserve the existing architecture typical of the time but, at the same time, to give a sustainable mark starting from the use of biocompatible materials and construction techniques, preferring as much as possible commodities coming from recycling in order to reach a certification of energy consumption class A.

In fact, the construction is made up of natural wood fiber panels, and the pillars are lined with rock  wool also used for the outside coat giving the building a large insulation capacity. There is not a real network of attack for gas but a photovoltaic system capable of producing electricity is present. This one, by the use of an inverter,  turns the direct current into alternate current indispensable to feed two heat pumps, which are outside and are necessary to heat the place.

On the basis of these principles of environmental sustainability and with a viewed of a training of the experts and the workers employed in the construction sector, a School Yard was also activated during the restructuring works.

This yard, thanks to the Memorandum of Understanding between Legambiente Basilicata, EFMEA Potenza (Authority for the Construction Training), INAIL –  Regional Directorate for Basilicata and the Paint shop Lamorte – made possible realize the insulating coat suitable to reduce the use of energy linked to the heating of the environments, with the help of nine asylum seekers, guests in the different structures present in the town.

The experience of the Scalo goods of Upper Potenza is the first of the Green Station projects around Italy, projects having as pulsating heart that of increasing the value of not attended spaces inside the stations and railway junctions, intended not as arrival, departure or social decay places anymore, since they are abandoned, but more and more as meeting and socializing places. Besides, they can also become urban magnets, centres of social and environmental services and collective mobility.

We would like to thank Mr. Marco De Biasi, an Only Manager Energy S.r.l. social Company, for guiding us to the discovery of this wonderful Green Station and for the great enthusiasm he puts into his work.

Top 5 Eco-friendly facilities signed from Italy

Eco-friendly architecture is one of the most innovative sectors in this category, so this article aims to show the ones that, in our opinion, are the best expressions in this field.

5) THE MADA BUILDINGhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QPRsbMO78&feature=youtu.be

The Mada Building is building belonging to BNP Paribas, which has been given a new purpose by the Milan design group “The Prism”. This group redesigned the inner places of the building depending on the needs of the financial group, without abandoning comfort and reducing energy consumptions. The groundwater was  exploited as an energy resource with the presence of a large tank at the base of the stucture.

4) MO.OM, a Eco-Hotel 4-star and a Luxury Boutique

The MO.OM, a 4-star hotel and a Luxury Boutique near Milan in Olgiate Olona, was designed by the Engineer Mario Grosso, who is a specialist in bioclimatic design and environmental technologies. The structure consists of 152 rooms that are divided into: the central structure, made up of 62 rooms and 2 suites; the two lateral structures, composed of 76 rooms and the annex, on the side of a tree avenue, composed of 6 suites.

With regard to the materials used for the interiors, they are those Eco-Friendly. Electrical energy is supplied by two turbines that exploit the thermal energy of the structure in order to produce electric current. In addition, the emission of greenhouse gases is compensated with the trees planted along the avenues.

3) The Cset Ningbo-China

The CSET (Center for Sustainable Energy Technologies) will devote it self to the diffusion of sustainable technologies such as the ones applied to solar energy, photovoltaic or wind energy. The building was designed by the MCA, which is an Italian consulting company leader in engineering and new technologies. A stream passes through the building and the design is inspired by the Chinese paper lanterns. An opening on the roof of the building conveys the sunlight in all storeys, illuminating and heating them through radiant panels on the floor.

2) The Tower Unipolsai – Milan

Mario Cucinella, one of the best Italian architects, designed a skyscraper for the seat UnipolSai in Milan reaching a height of 125 metres and covers an area of 3,300 square metres.

The materials used are wood, metal and glass, with curvilinear wooden pillars which meet forming a vertical nest on the walls.

The skeleton of the building is formed by a double layer that insulates it from the outside. Thanks to the solar panels and rainwater collection systems, fuel consumptions are reduced at the top level.

1) The Palace Of Justice in Paris

The Palace of Justice in Paris, designed by the Genoese Architect Renzo Piano, is one of the best examples of eco-sustainability, having much lower power consumptions than other buildings. The limited consumptions are given by a natural ventilation and by photovoltaic panels that are part of the used strategy, which provides for the automatic control of systems. So this building, in our opinion, is the first of our mini-list since it is an example that has no equal, if we consider the relationship between being environmentally friendly and same time majestic and imponent.